Allelopathic influence of Cassia Tora Linn. & Tephrosea Purpurea Linn. In Relation to Parthenium (Gajar  Grass) Management In Bhilai. (D. S. Chandel, Environment Management Department, BSP, Bhilai – 490 001. India.)

Introduction

Dr. D. S. Chandel

Parthenium hysterophorus Linn., an annual plant native to tropical America, now occures widely along the roadsides, wastelands and also in crop fields in East Africa, India and Australlia. It has a reputation of causing allergic disorders, dermatitis and respiratory problems. The weed did not find any place in the world’s Worst weeds (Holm et al., 1977). Within last ten years it has become one of the seven most dangerous weeds of the world ( Singla, 1992). As a species facing little Environmental resistance Parthenium has became a menace in waste lands and non-cropped areas. In addition to land productivity, in India yield decline of 40% per cent reduction in agricultural crops ( Khosala & Sobti, 1981) and 90 per cent reduction in forage production has been reported (Nath, 1988). In our country 4-7 per cent of human population suffers from recognizable clinical symptoms associated with Parthenium, while 42-50 per cent are sensitized without showing symptoms (Towers and Subba Rao , 1992).

Several methods have been developed for the control of Parthenium weed. Mechanical uprooting is control of Parthenium weed. Machanical uprooting is constrained by the development of dermatitis in workers, engaged in the operation ( Krishnamurthy, et al., 1977). Chemical control is temporary and needs repeated application. There are a good number of insects and non-insect pests .

Materials & Methods

Cassia Tora

Cassia Tora

Field survey was conducted during 1995 to understand the relative spread of Parthenium, three localities with high intensity with the Parthenium weed were selected for further studies in Bhilai Township area.

Germination test was carried out in germination chamber. Tephrosea pupurea and Cassia tora were soaked in double distilled water for 24 hrs. at 27C 2C. Freshly collected seeds of Parthenium were soaked in leachates for 24 hrs and placed on moist cotton pads into petridishes having double layer of moistened filter paper. Five replicates of dishes with 20 seeds each for each plant’s experiment were used. Petridishes were kept for incubation at 27C 2C for 10 days in germination chamber. A control consisting of seeds soaked in double distilled water only. Emergence of radicle was taken as the criterion for germination. Similar experiments were repeated for foliar extracts.z

Tephrosea pupurea

Tephrosea pupurea

To study the allelopathic effect of Tephrosea purpurea and Cassia tora on Parthenium, viable seeds of both the competitive plants were broadcasted separately in the experimental plots where Parthenium plants had observed vigrously grown and natural seedinng during 1995. The population of competitive plants and growth of Parthenium were estimated.

Results & Discussion

The data on the effect of leachates and foliar extracts of Cassia tora and Tephrosea purpurea on the germination of Parthenium seeds are summarised in Table-1. Aqueous foliar extracts of both the weeds were much inhibitory on seed germination of Parthenium than the leachates. The foliar extract of Cassia tora showed maximum germination inhibition (97.33%) whereas the seed leachate of Tephrosea purpurea showed least germination inhibition (63.25%). The results shows that the Cassia tora leachates either foliar or seed showed much inhibitory effect than Tephrosea purpurea.

Jaykumar et al (1994) also reported that aqueous extract of Caesalpinia coriaria has inhibitory effect on seed germination of Parthenium. Kalia et al. (1996) had also studied the effect of aqueous leachate of some multipurpose trees on the germination parameters of another weed Ageratum conyzoides and found considerable decrease in germination potential of the weed due to the presence of allelochemicals in the aqueous leachates of the trees. The present work is also one step where allelochemicals extracted form Cassia tora and Tephrosea purpurea had the potential to inhibit the germination of Parthenium seeds.

The parthenium population was considerably reduced Photographs by both the plants. The Cassia tora with well developed root and shoot systems enables them to suppress the vegetative growth of Parthenium. The weed Tephrosea purpurea observed effective on suppressing Parthenium only in upland plot.

The species Cassia tora, Tephrosea purpurea and Parthenium hysterophorus are weeds of wastelands. Compared to harmful effects of Parthenium on human beings, live stock, crops other vegetations and environment, the species Cassia tora and Tephrosea purpurea are not only harmless but can also have the value as fodder and both can increase the nitrogen.

Table - 1: EFFECT OF LEACHATES OF CASSIA TORA AND TEPHROSEA PURPUREA
ON SEED GERMINATION OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS

S/N Name LEACHATES AQUEOUS FOLIAR EXTRACTS

% Germination
In Control

% Germination
In Leachate

% Inhibition

% Germination
In Control

% Germination
In Leachate

% Inhibition

CASSIA TORA

1.

R1 72.00

47.00

73.61

80.66

23.33

95.05

R2 65.33

52.00 73.47 64.50 37.33 97.16

R3 72.84

48.00 71.38 65.00 35.14 99.78

R4 73.60

48.14 70.46 76.33 24.00 99.56

R5 77.00

47.85

67.72

68.74

34.62

95.11

*71.32 *97.33

2.

TEPHROSEA PURPUREA

R1 77.00 48..25 67.20 77.00 46.25 69.80

R2 74.40

55.00

60.48

76.16

47.50

68.93

R3 78.00

52.00

61.53

74.05

46.95

71.64

R4 69.25

60.00

57.76

75.00

52.14

63.81

R5 75.23

47.85

69.32

76.32

48.00

68.13

*63.25

*68.46

* Implies : Of 5 replicates.

References

Holm, L.G., K.L. Pluchnett; J.V. Panchu & J.P. Herberger, 1977. The Word’s Worst Weeds, Honolulu University Press. P : 109.

Singla, R.K., 1992. Can Parthenium be put to use ? The Tribune 112 (294) : P.6.

Khosla, S.N. and S.W. Sobti, 1981. Effective Control of Parthenium Hysterophorus Linn. Pesticides 15 (4) : PP. 18-19.

Nath, R. 1988. Parthenium hysterophorus L. : A Review. Agric. Rev. 9 : PP. 171-179.

Towers, G.HN. and P.V.Subba Rao. 1992. Impact of the pan-tropical weed,Parthemium hysterophorus L. on human affairs. Proc. First Int. Weed Contrl Congr., Melbourne, 1992. (eds.) J.H. Cambellock, K.J.Levick, J. Parsons & I.G. Chardson. Vol. 1 : PP. 134-138.

Krishnamurthy et al. 1977. Panthenium-A new pernicious weed in India. UAS. Tech Ser. No. 17, University of Agric. Sc., Banglore, India, p. 46

Jaykumar, M., Eyini, M. & C. Shaji 1994. Allelopathic Petential of Caesalpinia coriaria on Parthenium hysterophorus. Abst. Int. Sym., Allelopathy in sustainable Agriculture, Foresty & Environment, Ind. Soc. Of Allelopathy, IARI, New Delhi : p. 41

Kalia, P., V. Arora & R.K. Kohli, 1996. Possible role of some agroforestry tree foliage in checking the germination and growth of Ageratum conyzoides weed, In : Agroforestry & Environment Eds. R.K. Kohli and K.S. Arya, pp. 328-332, HKT. Publisher Chandigarh, India.

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